Brief History of the 1st Airborne Division
Lt Gen Frederick Arthur Montague Browning
Knight Commander of the British Empire, Companion of the Bath, Distinguished Service Order, Mentioned in Despatches, Legion of Merit, Croix de Guerre
General Officer Commanding
1st Airborne Division
The 1st Airborne Division was formed on the 31st October 1941. It initially consisted of just the 1st Parachute Brigade and the newly raised 1st Airlanding Brigade, but was brought up to full divisional strength on the 17th July 1942; with the formation and inclusion of the 2nd Parachute Brigade.
In late 1942, the 1st Parachute Brigade was called to North Africa. The loss of this Brigade left a very large hole in the 1st Airborne's strength. The 3rd Parachute Brigade temporarily joined the Division in their absence. This partnership was maintained until the 1st May 1943, when the Division, with its new commander Major-General Hopkinson, also departed for North Africa to rejoin the 1st Parachute Brigade and to take part in the invasion of Sicily. The 3rd Parachute Brigade remained in England to form the basis of the 6th Airborne Division.
Before Arnhem. The 1st Airborne Division had never fought together as a complete unit in a major battle. Sicily saw the 1st Parachute and the 1st Airlanding Brigades going into action. But they did so without the 2nd Parachute Brigade and the Division's supporting units and also on separate dates and different locations around the island.
On the 9th September, the Division, with the welcome addition of the 4th Parachute Brigade, was called to Italy to capture the port of Taranto. The port was immediately taken and the 2nd and 4th Parachute Brigades began to advance inland; where they patrolled rigorously and were involved in numerous skirmishes, though not of the serious nature that airborne troops had become accustomed. However; it was during these initial stages that Major-General Hopkinson was killed by German machine gun fire. Temporary command passed to Brigadier Eric Down of the 2nd Parachute Brigade. The 1st Airborne Division was given the order to return to England in November, though the 2nd Parachute Brigade was detached and remained behind in Italy to act as an independent unit.
The Division was overlooked for the Normandy invasion in favour of the 6th Airborne Division, though they were held in reserve for the Operation. Two weeks before D-Day, the 1st Airborne Division and the Polish Brigade had the honour of acting as "enemy" to the 6th Airborne on a four day training exercise. Between Normandy and Arnhem, no less than 17 operations were proposed for the 1st Airborne, but all were cancelled at the last minute. This had a severe effect on the morale of the battle-starved men and this, combined with a belief that they were being held in reserve for the victory parade, led them to christen themselves the Stillborn Division. Arnhem was to dispatch this christening and was to satisfied their hunger.
The 1st Airborne Division returned to a hero's welcome in England within a week of the end of the battle. They were in a very sorry state as only a quarter of their number remained and the leadership structure throughout had been totally wrecked, though Divisional HQ had survived largely intact. Reinforcements were drafted in, but these only managed to bring this once fine fighting unit up to the strength of a weak Division. Nevertheless; on the 6th December, 438 hand picked soldiers from all areas of the Division proudly paraded through the streets of London for the Arnhem investiture at Buckingham Palace, where many received decorations from King George VI. However; it was described as something of a "ghost march" because the public had not been made aware of it for security reasons.
The 1st Airborne Division was to play no further part in the war.
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